Many experts predict that genetic testing for disease susceptibility is well on its way to becoming a routine part of clinical care. Yet many of the genetic tests currently being developed are, in the words of the World Health Organization (WHO), of questionable prognostic value. Leslie Pray, PhD Obesity remains one of the most common chronic diseases in the United States. As a leading cause of United States mortality, morbidity, disability, healthcare utilization and healthcare costs, the high prevalence of obesity continues to strain the United States healthcare system (Obesity Society, 2016).? More than one-third (39.8%) of U.S. adults have obesity (CDC, 2018). The estimated annual medical cost of obesity in the U.S. was $147 billion in 2008 U.S. dollars; the medical costs for people who are obese were $1,429 higher than those of normal weight (CDC, 2018). According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the rate of childhood obesity has tripled in the past 30 years, with an estimated 13.7 million children and adolescents considered obese (CDC, 2018). When seeking insights about a patients overall health and nutritional state, body measurements can provide a valuable perspective. This is particularly important with pediatric patients. Measurements such as height and weight can provide clues to potential health problems and help predict how children will respond to illness. Nurses need to be proficient at using assessment tools, such as the Body Mass Index (BMI) and growth charts, in order to assess nutrition-related health risks and pediatric development while being sensitive to other factors that may affect these measures. Body Mass Index is also used as a predictor for measurement of adult weight and health. Assessments are constantly being conducted on patients, but they may not provide useful information. In order to ensure that health assessments provide relevant data, nurses should familiarize themselves with test-specific factors that may affect the validity, reliability, and value of these tools. This week, you will explore various assessment tools and diagnostic tests that are used to gather information about patients conditions. You will examine the validity and reliability of these tests and tools. You will also examine assessment techniques, health risks and concerns, and recommendations for care related to patient growth, weight, and nutrition. Learning Objectives Students will: Evaluate validity and reliability of assessment tools and diagnostic tests Analyze diversity considerations in health assessments Apply concepts, theories, and principles related to examination techniques, functional assessments, and cultural and diversity awareness in health assessment Apply assessment skills to collect patient health histories Assignment 1: Case Study Assignment: Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children When seeking to identify a patients health condition, advanced practice nurses can use a diverse selection of diagnostic tests and assessment tools; however, different factors affect the validity and reliability of the results produced by these tests or tools. Nurses must be aware of these factors in order to select the most appropriate test or tool and to accurately interpret the results. Not only do these diagnostic tests affect adults, body measurements can provide a general picture of whether a child is receiving adequate nutrition or is at risk for health issues. These data, however, are just one aspect to be considered. Lifestyle, family history, and cultureamong other factorsare also relevant. That said, gathering and communicating this information can be a delicate process. Photo Credit: Getty Images/Hero Images For this Assignment, you will consider the validity and reliability of different assessment tools and diagnostic tests. You will explore issues such as sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. You will also consider examples of children with various weight issues. You will explore how you could effectively gather information and encourage parents and caregivers to be proactive about their childrens health and weight. To Prepare Review this weeks Learning Resources and consider factors that impact the validity and reliability of various assessment tools and diagnostic tests. You also will review examples of pediatric patients and their families as it relates to BMI. By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to one of the following Assignment options by your Instructor: Adult Assessment Tools or Diagnostic Tests (option 1), or Child Health Case (Option 2). Note: Please see the Course Announcements section of the classroom for your assignments from your Instructor. Search the Walden Library and credible sources for resources explaining the tool or test you were assigned. What is its purpose, how is it conducted, and what information does it gather? Also, as you search the Walden library and credible sources, consider what the literature discusses regarding the validity, reliability, sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, ethical dilemmas, and controversies related to the test or tool. If you are assigned Assignment Option 2 (Child), consider what health issues and risks may be relevant to the child in the health example. Based on the risks you identified, consider what further information you would need to gain a full understanding of the childs health. Think about how you could gather this information in a sensitive fashion. Consider how you could encourage parents or caregivers to be proactive toward the childs health. The Assignment Assignment (34 pages, not including title and reference pages): Assignment Option 1: Adult Assessment Tools or Diagnostic Tests: Include the following: A description of how the assessment tool or diagnostic test you were assigned is used in healthcare. What is its purpose? How is it conducted? What information does it gather? Based on your research, evaluate the test or the tools validity and reliability, and explain any issues with sensitivity, reliability, and predictive values. Include references in appropriate APA formatting. Assignment Option 2: Child Health Case: Include the following: An explanation of the health issues and risks that are relevant to the child you were assigned. Describe additional information you would need in order to further assess his or her weight-related health. Identify and describe any risks and consider what further information you would need to gain a full understanding of the childs health. Think about how you could gather this information in a sensitive fashion. Taking into account the parents and caregivers potential sensitivities, list at least three specific questions you would ask about the child to gather more information. Provide at least two strategies you could employ to encourage the parents or caregivers to be proactive about their childs health and weight.