Assignment 1: Case Study Assignment: Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children When seeking to identify a patients health condition, advanced practice nurses can use a diverse selection of diagnostic tests and assessment tools; however, different factors affect the validity and reliability of the results produced by these tests or tools. Nurses must be aware of these factors in order to select the most appropriate test or tool and to accurately interpret the results. Not only do these diagnostic tests affect adults, body measurements can provide a general picture of whether a child is receiving adequate nutrition or is at risk for health issues. These data, however, are just one aspect to be considered. Lifestyle, family history, and cultureamong other factorsare also relevant. That said, gathering and communicating this information can be a delicate process. Photo Credit: Getty Images/Hero Images For this Assignment, you will consider the validity and reliability of different assessment tools and diagnostic tests. You will explore issues such as sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. You will also consider examples of children with various weight issues. You will explore how you could effectively gather information and encourage parents and caregivers to be proactive about their childrens health and weight. To Prepare Review this weeks Learning Resources and consider factors that impact the validity and reliability of various assessment tools and diagnostic tests. You also will review examples of pediatric patients and their families as it relates to BMI. By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to one of the following Assignment options by your Instructor: Adult Assessment Tools or Diagnostic Tests (option 1), or Child Health Case (Option 2). Note: Please see the Course Announcements section of the classroom for your assignments from your Instructor. Search the Walden Library and credible sources for resources explaining the tool or test you were assigned. What is its purpose, how is it conducted, and what information does it gather? Also, as you search the Walden library and credible sources, consider what the literature discusses regarding the validity, reliability, sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, ethical dilemmas, and controversies related to the test or tool. If you are assigned Assignment Option 2 (Child), consider what health issues and risks may be relevant to the child in the health example. Based on the risks you identified, consider what further information you would need to gain a full understanding of the childs health. Think about how you could gather this information in a sensitive fashion. Consider how you could encourage parents or caregivers to be proactive toward the childs health. The Assignment Assignment (34 pages, not including title and reference pages): Assignment Option 1: Adult Assessment Tools or Diagnostic Tests: Include the following: A description of how the assessment tool or diagnostic test you were assigned is used in healthcare. What is its purpose? How is it conducted? What information does it gather? Based on your research, evaluate the test or the tools validity and reliability, and explain any issues with sensitivity, reliability, and predictive values. Include references in appropriate APA formatting. Assignment Option 2: Child Health Case: Include the following: An explanation of the health issues and risks that are relevant to the child you were assigned. Describe additional information you would need in order to further assess his or her weight-related health. Identify and describe any risks and consider what further information you would need to gain a full understanding of the childs health. Think about how you could gather this information in a sensitive fashion. Taking into account the parents and caregivers potential sensitivities, list at least three specific questions you would ask about the child to gather more information. Provide at least two strategies you could employ to encourage the parents or caregivers to be proactive about their childs health and weight. Learning Resources Required Readings (click to expand/reduce) Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus. Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. (2019). Seidel’s guide to physical examination: An interprofessional approach (9th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby. Chapter 3, Examination Techniques and EquipmentThis chapter explains the physical examination techniques of inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation. This chapter also explores special issues and equipment relevant to the physical exam process. Chapter 8, Growth and NutritionIn this chapter, the authors explain examinations for growth, gestational age, and pubertal development. The authors also differentiate growth among the organ systems. Chapter 5, Recording Information (Previously read in Week 1)This chapter provides rationale and methods for maintaining clear and accurate records. The text also explores the legal aspects of patient records. Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. (2019). Student checklist: Health history guide. In Seidel’s guide to physical examination (9th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby. Credit Line: Seidel’s Guide to Physical Examination, 9th Edition by Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. Copyright 2019 by Elsevier Health Sciences. Reprinted by permission of Elsevier Health Sciences via the Copyright Clearance Center. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Childhood overweight and obesity. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/childhood This website provides information about overweight and obese children. Additionally, the website provides basic facts about obesity and strategies to counteracting obesity. Chaudhry, M. A. I., & Nisar, A. (2017). Escalating health care cost due to unnecessary diagnostic testing. Mehran University Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, (3), 569. This study explores the escalating healthcare cost due the unnecessary use of diagnostic testing. Consider the impact of health insurance coverage in each state and how nursing professionals must be cognizant when ordering diagnostics for different individuals. Dains, J. E., Baumann, L. C., & Scheibel, P. (2019). Advanced health assessment and clinical diagnosis in primary care (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby. Credit Line: Advanced Health Assessment and Clinical Diagnosis in Primary Care, 6th Edition by Dains, J.E., Baumann, L. C., & Scheibel, P. Copyright 2019 by Mosby. Reprinted by permission of Mosby via the Copyright Clearance Center. Chapter 1, Clinical Reasoning, Evidence-Based Practice, and Symptom Analysis This chapter introduces the diagnostic process, which includes performing an analysis of the symptoms and then formulating and testing a hypothesis. The authors discuss how becoming an expert clinician takes time and practice in developing clinical judgment. Gibbs , H., & Chapman-Novakofski, K. (2012). Exploring nutrition literacy: Attention to assessment and the skills clients need. Health, 4(3), 120124. This study explores nutrition literacy. The authors examine the level of attention paid to health literacy among nutrition professionals and the skills and knowledge needed to understand nutrition education. Martin, B. C., Dalton, W. T., Williams, S. L., Slawson, D. L., Dunn, M. S., & Johns-Wommack, R. (2014). Weight status misperception as related to selected health risk behaviors among middle school students. Journal of School Health, 84(2), 116123. doi:10.1111/josh.12128 Credit Line: Weight status misperception as related to selected health risk behaviors among middle school students by Martin, B. C., Dalton, W. T., Williams, S. L., Slawson, D. L., Dunn, M. S., & Johns-Wommack, R., in Journal of School Health, Vol. 84/Issue 2. Copyright 2014 by Blackwell Publishing. Reprinted by permission of Blackwell Publishing via the Copyright Clearance Center. Noble, H., & Smith, J. (2015) Issues of validity and reliability in qualitative research . Evidence Based Nursing, 18(2), pp. 3435. Seidel, H. M., Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. (2011). History subjective data checklist. In Mosbys guide to physical examination (7th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby. Credit Line: Mosbys Guide to Physical Examination, 7th Edition by Seidel, H. M., Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. Copyright 2011 by Elsevier. Reprinted by permission of Elsevier via the Copyright Clearance Center. This History Subjective Data Checklist was published as a companion to Seidels Guide to Physical Examination (8th ed.) by Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., & Flynn, J.A. Copyright Elsevier (2015). From https://evolve.elsevier.com Sullivan, D. D. (2019). Guide to clinical documentation (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis. Chapter 2, “The Comprehensive History and Physical Exam” (Previously read in Week 1) Chapter 5, “Pediatric Preventative Care Visits” (pp. 91 101) Shadow Health Support and Orientation Resources Use the following resources to guide you through your Shadow Health orientation as well as other support resources: Frey, C. [Chris Frey]. (2015, September 4). Student orientation [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rfd_8pTJBkY Document: Shadow Health Support and Orientation Resources (PDF) Shadow Health. (n.d.). Shadow Health help desk. Retrieved from https://support.shadowhealth.com/hc/en-us Document: Shadow Health. (2014). Useful tips and tricks (Version 2) (PDF) Document: Shadow Health Nursing Documentation Tutorial (Word document) Document: Student Acknowledgement Form (Word document) Note: You will sign and date this form each time you complete your DCE Assignment in Shadow Health to acknowledge your commitment to Walden Universitys Code of Conduct. Optional Resource LeBlond, R. F., Brown, D. D., & DeGowin, R. L. (2014). DeGowins diagnostic examination (10th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill Medical. Chapter 3, “The Physical Screening Examination”Chapter 17, “Principles of Diagnostic Testing”Chapter 18, “Common Laboratory Tests” Required Media (click to expand/reduce) Taking a Health History How do nurses gather information and assess a patients health? Consider the importance of conducting an in-depth health assessment interview and the strategies you might use as you watch. (16m) Accessible player –Downloads–Download Video w/CCDownload AudioDownload Transcript Assessment Tool, Diagnostics, Growth, Measurements, and Nutrition in Adults and Children – Week 3 (11m) Accessible player –Downloads–Download Video w/CCDownload AudioDownload Transcript The Assignment Assignment (34 pages, not including title and reference pages): Assignment Option 1: Adult Assessment Tools or Diagnostic Tests: Rapid strep testing in children: Abolarin, Aladesanmi, Baribor, Blaclk, Claggett, Diaby and Fadera Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test: Holmes, Johnson, Kier, Kung, Lukas, Moos and Moriango Assignment Option 2: Child Health Case:Murray,Onyekwere, Ramos, Sofowote, Sterchi, Williams and Young Case: Overweight 5-year-old black boy with overweight parents who work full-time and the boy spends his time after school with his grandmother 4 sources for this assignment.