Peer response: need 1 reference with in text citation, minimum 100 words for each Education in family planning, promoting rights to birth control is what nurse activist Margaret Sanger devoted her entire life to. Her devotion caused her to be jailed for distributing contraceptives to immigrant women from a clinic (Nickitas, Middaugh & Aries, 2014). Margaret Sanger was a nurse that worked in poverty stricken neighborhoods where she could provide education to woman regarding their rights to birth control, family planning and the importance of using contraceptives to decrease unwanted pregnancies. She had many people working with her to help spread the word for womans rights. The Arkansas Nurses association held a convention to help nurses gain awareness for education, gain knowledge on nursing theory and help promote professional growth and development (Arkansas Nurses Association, 2014). The policy can change when it passes through legislation and decided by the elected officials enact it into law. Nurses can help improve the decision-making process by working outside the government by forming coalitions to influence the decision-making process (Nickitas, Middaugh & Aries, 2014). Nurses should advocate for patients by using their critical thinking skills when trying to influence within the organization. A policy that need advocating for is nursing staff shortages. Patients seem to be more critical when being admitted to the hospital. With short staff it becomes difficult to care for patients the way they deserve. Patients have rights when it comes to receiving care, receiving quality effective care is important to positive health outcomes. Patient safety is compromised with every shift that is short staffed. Many errors occur when nurses must work shorthanded (Westrick, 2014). References Arkansas Nurses Association 101th Annual ARNA Convention. (2014). Arkansas Nursing News, 10(4), 7-14. Nickitas, D. M., Middaugh, D. J. & Aries, N. (2014). Policy and politics for nurses and other health professionals. (2nd ed.). Jones & Bartlett Westrick, S. J. (2014). Essentials of Nursing Law & Ethics. (2nd ed.). Burlington, MA. Jones & Bartlett Peer response: need 1 reference with in text citation, minimum 100 words. When trying to influence policy changes or making policies it is important to understand the interest groups, their influence, and the stakeholders involved (Mund, 2012). The policy framework is the identification of the problem and the causes of the problem (Weston, Brewer, & Peterson, 2012). When an idea is thought for the problem then it is added to an agenda. Elected officials then decide on policies through a legislative process (Nickitas, Middaugh, & Aries, 2016). Then the policy can be implemented as an extension of the policy creation and process. Nurse Sanger did not want any more women dying from illegal abortions. She started to organize protests to bring attention to the issue and health care inequality women were receiving (Nickitas, Middaugh, & Aries, 2016). This was challenging given the time in history this was taking place. Given the time in history she would have to make compelling arguments for women and birth control (Nickitas, Middaugh, & Aries, 2016). A turning point was when Nurse Sager was arrested in 1917 for distributing contraceptives to immigrant women from a clinic while demanding for services for the poor that are given to the middle class (Nickitas, Middaugh, & Aries, 2016). Her intentions were to shed more light on reproductive services and women’s rights. It worked, physicians were able to prescribe contraceptives and freestanding facilities were built (Nickitas, Middaugh, & Aries, 2016). In 1936 Nurse Sanger won a federal court decision allowing physicians to import contraceptives using the federal mail system (Nickitas, Middaugh, & Aries, 2016). She continued to shape public health initiatives. She lobbied men, women, organizations, and businesses for public health and birth control (Nickitas, Middaugh, & Aries, 2016). She spread her word through writing books and giving lectures across the world. She lobbied at the state legislators for women’s health clinics (Nickitas, Middaugh, & Aries, 2016). She coined the terms birth control and family planning. In 1952 she expanded to London and founded the International Planned Parenthood Federation (Nickitas, Middaugh, & Aries, 2016). Before her death she was able to see many achievements for family planning. References Mund, A. R. (2012). Policy, practice, and education. AANA Journal, 80(6), 423-426. Nickitas, D.M., Middaugh, D.J., & Aries, N. (2016). Policy and politics for nurses and other health professionals (2nd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning. Weston, M. J., Brewer, K. C., & Peterson, C. A. (2012). ANA principles: The framework for nurse staffing to positively impact outcomes. Nursing Economic$, 30(5), 247-252.