In the response post, critique the outline by providing strengths and areas of improvement based on the quality of the following: Introduction Body w/ transitions Conclusion Supporting materials in-text references and APA citations Were you informed? How was it or was it not effective? Other suggestions for improvement Any suggestions you have for smoothing out the content. Peers’ post: Opioid use in Pregnancy and effects on Child later in life Specific Purpose: The effects of opioid use on the fetus in pregnancy and effects of opioid use on the child later in its life. Central Idea: To educate women on the serious effects of opioid use during pregnancy and how it can potentially affect the child. INTRODUCTION I. (Attention Getter) According to 2019 self-reported data, about 7% of women reported using prescription opioid pain relievers during pregnancy. Of those, 1 in 5 reported misuse of prescription opioids, defined as getting them from a non-healthcare source or using them for a reason other than to relieve pain. (cdc, 2020) II. (Reveal Topic) We are going to be discussing about the effects on a fetus born to a woman who used opioids during pregnancy and what effects it may bring to the child when they are born. III. (Credibility Statement) According to the CDC, an estimated of 14%-22% of women filled an opioid prescription during pregnancy. And according to a 2016 data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, 7 newborns born out of every 1,000 newborns hospital stays, were diagnosed with Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). NAS is a group of condition in which results when a newborn withdraws from certain drugs, most commonly opioids where he was exposed to in his mothers womb before birth. IV. (Preview) NAS may lead to long-term health and developmental problems for the child that may include hearing, vision and learning and behavioral problems later for a child born with NAS. NAS is most often caused when a woman takes opioid drugs in pregnancy but can also be caused by other medications such as antidepressants, barbiturates, or benzodiazepines. These drugs can pass through the placenta causing serious problems for the baby. The placenta grows in the uterus with pregnancy and supplies the baby with nutrition and oxygen through the umbilical cord. Transition: Drug use during pregnancy is an important pregnancy teaching topic. Especially for women who uses opioids and other medications. Patient education on the long term effects of opioid use on the child is an important matter to discuss with the expecting mother so ensure she understands the consequences that may come with using opioid during pregnancy. Body (Main Point 1) Effects of opioid use in pregnancy. A. (Subpoint) Opioid use in Pregnancy The effects on pregnancy in a woman using opioid drugs during pregnancy. a. In 2019, about 7% of women reported to using a prescription opioid pain reliver during pregnancy. 1 out of 5 women reported misuse (getting them from another source other than a healthcare provider) using them for other reasons other than to relieve pain b. Maternal death. About 700 women due each year in the United States from pregnancy or delivery complications. c. Stillbirth Tobacco use1.8 to 2.8 times greater risk of stillbirth, with the highest risk found among the heaviest smokers Marijuana use2.3 times greater risk of stillbirth Evidence of any stimulant, marijuana, or prescription pain reliever use2.2 times greater risk of stillbirth Passive exposure to tobacco2.1 times greater risk of stillbirth Next, we will discuss about the long-term effects of opioid use on a child. (Main Point 2) Effects on Child Opioid use during pregnancy and its effects on a child born with NAS. a. A child born with NAS may show symptoms within 72 hours/3 days of birth. b. Signs of NAS can vary for each baby TRANSITION: Now we will talk about complications of NAS on a baby NAS complications on the baby a. Signs and symptoms to look for in a baby with NAS Signs and symptoms to look for in a baby with NAS a. Tremors, convulsions, seizures, over reactive reflexes, fussiness, excessive crying, poor feeding, slow weight gain, breathing problems, fever . b. Complications: low birth weight, jaundice, sudden infant death syndrome. Long term Effects on Child a. developmental delays b. Child may not reach developmental milestones— sitting, walking, talking, social and thinking skills. c. Motor problems d. Speech and language problems e. Sleep problems f. Ear infections g. Vision problems Conclusion Patient education on the potential dangers of opioid use during pregnancy is vital to a healthy pregnancy and baby. Informing an expecting mother on the potential complications of using opioids during pregnancy can help to avoid these complications in both pregnancy and the newborn. Its important for a mother to understand the signs of possible NAS in their baby as these signs can present a little later after birth. Most babies born with NAS who receive proper treatment right away get better in 5-30 days. (Summary Statement) Importance to seek medical attention right away if pregnant and using an opioid medication. Patient education is important in informing an expecting woman about the potential complications that may come with continuing use of opioids during pregnancy and what complications it may cause for the newborn when they are born. Avoiding a baby being born with NAS could be avoided with early detection and planning. (Memorable Closing Statement) Patient education is a significant part of a healthcare providers job. Patient education may improve a patients health status. When patients are involved in their care, patients are more likely to engage in interventions that may increase their chances of positive outcomes.