Assignment: Assessing and Treating Patients With Psychosis and Schizophrenia Psychosis and schizophrenia greatly impact the brains normal processes, which interfere with the ability to think clearly. When symptoms of these disorders are uncontrolled, patients may struggle to function in daily life. However, patients often thrive when properly diagnosed and treated under the close supervision of a psychiatric mental health practitioner. For this Assignment, as you examine the patient case study in this weeks Learning Resources, consider how you might assess and treat patients presenting with psychosis and schizophrenia. To prepare for this Assignment: Review this weeks Learning Resources, including the Medication Resources indicated for this week. Reflect on the psychopharmacologic treatments you might recommend for the assessment and treatment of patients with schizophrenia-related psychoses. The Assignment: 5 pages Examine Case Study: Pakistani Woman With Delusional Thought Processes. You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the medication to prescribe to this patient. Be sure to consider factors that might impact the patients pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes. At each decision point, you should evaluate all options before selecting your decision and moving throughout the exercise. Before you make your decision, make sure that you have researched each option and that you evaluate the decision that you will select. Be sure to research each option using the primary literature. Introduction to the case (1 page) Briefly explain and summarize the case for this Assignment. Be sure to include the specific patient factors that may impact your decision making when prescribing medication for this patient. Decision #1 (1 page) Which decision did you select? Why did you select this decision? Be specific and support your response with clinically relevant and patient-specific resources, including the primary literature. Why did you not select the other two options provided in the exercise? Be specific and support your response with clinically relevant and patient-specific resources, including the primary literature. What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources (including the primary literature). Explain how ethical considerations may impact your treatment plan and communication with patients. Be specific and provide examples. Decision #2 (1 page) Why did you select this decision? Be specific and support your response with clinically relevant and patient-specific resources, including the primary literature. Why did you not select the other two options provided in the exercise? Be specific and support your response with clinically relevant and patient-specific resources, including the primary literature. What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources (including the primary literature). Explain how ethical considerations may impact your treatment plan and communication with patients. Be specific and provide examples. Decision #3 (1 page) Why did you select this decision? Be specific and support your response with clinically relevant and patient-specific resources, including the primary literature. Why did you not select the other two options provided in the exercise? Be specific and support your response with clinically relevant and patient-specific resources, including the primary literature. What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources (including the primary literature). Explain how ethical considerations may impact your treatment plan and communication with patients. Be specific and provide examples. Conclusion (1 page) Summarize your recommendations on the treatment options you selected for this patient. Be sure to justify your recommendations and support your response with clinically relevant and patient-specific resources, including the primary literature. Note: Support your rationale with a minimum of five academic resources. While you may use the course text to support your rationale, it will not count toward the resource requirement. You should be utilizing the primary and secondary literature. Reminder : The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The Sample Paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates/general#s-lg-box-20293632). All papers submitted must use this formatting. Freudenreich, O., Goff, D. C., & Henderson, D. C. (2016). Antipsychotic drugs. In T. A. Stern, M. Favo, T. E. Wilens, & J. F. Rosenbaum. (Eds.), Massachusetts General Hospital psychopharmacology and neurotherapeutics (pp. 7285). Elsevier. American Psychiatric Association. (2019). Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia. https://www.psychiatry.org/File%20Library/Psychiatrists/Practice/Clinical%20Practice%20Guidelines/APA-Draft-Schizophrenia-Treatment-Guideline.pdf Clozapine REMS. (2015). Clozapine REMS: The single shared system for clozapine. https://www.clozapinerems.com/CpmgClozapineUI/rems/pdf/resources/Clozapine_REMS_A_Guide_for_Healthcare_Providers.pdf Funk, M. C., Beach, S. R., Bostwick, J. R., Celano, C. M., Hasnain, M., Pandurangi, A., Khandai, A., Taylor, A., Levenson, J. L., Riba, M., & Kovacs, R. J. (2018). Resource document on QTc prolongation and psychotropic medications. American Psychiatric Association. https://www.psychiatry.org/File%20Library/Psychiatrists/Directories/Library-and-Archive/resource_documents/Resource-Document-2018-QTc-Prolongation-and-Psychotropic-Med.pdf Kay, S. R., Fiszbein, A., & Opler, L. A. (1987). The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 13(2), 261276. https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/13.2.261 Levenson, J. C., Kay, D. B., & Buysse, D. J. (2015). The pathophysiology of insomnia. Chest, 147(4), 11791192. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4388122/ McClellan, J. & Stock. S. (2013). Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with schizophrenia. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 52(9), 976990. https://www.jaacap.org/article/S0890-8567(09)62600-9/pdf Naber, D., & Lambert, M. (2009). The CATIE and CUtLASS studies in schizophrenia: Results and implications for clinicians. CNS Drugs, 23(8), 649659. https://doi.org/10.2165/00023210-200923080-00002 Delusional Disorders Pakistani Female With Delusional Thought Processes BACKGROUND The client is a 34-year-old Pakistani female who moved to the United States in her late teens/early 20s. She is currently in an arranged marriage (her husband was selected for her when she was 9 years old). She presents following a 21-day hospitalization for what was diagnosed as brief psychotic disorder. She was given this diagnosis as her symptoms have persisted for less than 1 month. Prior to admission, she was reporting visions of Allah, and over the course of a week, she believed that she was the prophet Mohammad. She believed that she would deliver the world from sin. Her husband became concerned about her behavior to the point that he was afraid of leaving their 4 children with her. One evening, she was out of control, which resulted in his calling the police and her subsequent admission to an inpatient psych unit. During todays assessment, she appears quite calm and insists that the entire incident was blown out of proportion. She denies that she believed herself to be the prophet Mohammad and states that her husband was just out to get her because he never loved her and wanted an American wife instead of her. She says she knows this because the television is telling her so. She currently weighs 140 lbs., and she is 5 5. SUBJECTIVE Client reports that her mood is good. She denies auditory/visual hallucinations but believes that the television talks to her. She believes that Allah sends her messages through the TV. At times throughout the clinical interview, she becomes hostile towards you but then calms down. A review of her hospital records shows that she received a medical workup from physician, who reported her to be in overall good health. Lab studies were all within normal limits. Client admits that she stopped taking her Risperdal about a week after she got out of the hospital because she thinks her husband is going to poison her so that he can marry an American woman. MENTAL STATUS EXAM The client is alert and oriented to person, place, time, and event. She is dressed appropriately for the weather and time of year. She demonstrates no noteworthy mannerisms, gestures, or tics. Her speech is slow and, at times, interrupted by periods of silence. Self-reported mood is euthymic. Affect is constricted. Although the client denies visual or auditory hallucinations, she appears to be listening to something. Delusional and paranoid thought processes as described above. Insight and judgment are impaired. She is currently denying suicidal or homicidal ideation. You administer the PANSS which reveals the following scores: -40 for the positive symptoms scale -20 for the negative symptom scale -60 for general psychopathology scale Diagnosis: Schizophrenia, paranoid type RESOURCES PANSS Scale. Available at: http://egret.psychol.cam.ac.uk/medicine/scales/PANSS § Kay, S. R., Fiszbein, A., & Opler, L. A. (1987). The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 13(2), 261276. doi:10.1093/schbul/13.2.261 https://www.clozapinerems.com/CpmgClozapineUI/rems/pdf/resources/Clozapine_REMS_A_Guide_for_Healthcare_Providers.pdf § Clozapine REMS Program. (n.d.). Clozapine REMS: A guide for healthcare providers. Retrieved September 7, 2016, from https://www.clozapinerems.com/CpmgClozapineUI/rems/pdf/resources/Clozapine_REMS_A_Guide_for_Healthcare_Providers.pdf http://www.ima.org.il/FilesUpload/IMAJ/0/40/20149.pdf § Paz, Z., Nalls, M., and Ziv, E. (2011). The genetics of benign neutropenia. Israel Medical Association Journal, 13(10), 625629. Retrieved from http://www.ima.org.il/FilesUpload/IMAJ/0/40/20149.pdf Decision Point One Start Zyprexa (olanzapine) 10 mg orally at BEDTIME RESULTS OF DECISION POINT ONE Client returns to clinic in four weeks Her PANSS decreases to a partial response (decrease in positive symptoms by 25%) She comes in today with a reported weight gain of 5 pounds. When questioned further on this point, she states that she can never seem to get full from her meals, so she is snacking constantly throughout the day Decision Point Two Decrease Zyprexa to 7.5 mg orally at BEDTIME RESULTS OF DECISION POINT TWO Client returns to clinic in four weeks Result of next decision (what happened): Client worsens (her positive symtpoms scale increased by 25% and her negative symptom scale score decreased by 10% indicating improved negative symptoms), but her weight becomes stabilized and excessive hunger abates Husband explains that she is becoming less manageable at home, and he has to take time off from work because he is fearful of leaving her alone Decision Point Three Increase Zyprexa 10 MG orally at BEDTIME Guidance to Student Weight gain is a significant problem with Zyprexa. Next to Clozaril (clozapine), Zyprexa causes the most weight gain of all the atypical antipsychotics. This is a side effect that a significant number of clients will experience. There also appears to be an increased association of newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus in clients treated with Zyprexa. Although this can be disease related in this population, Zyprexa is above what would be considered coincidental. Risperdal is a good option, although it is dosed twice daily and compliance in this population can be problematic. There is evidence that shows giving Risperdal all at once can be efficacious and therefore could be an option down the road should compliance become an issue. Weight gain is also possible with Risperdal, but it is not as great as that seen with Zyprexa. If compliance does become an issue with this client, Risperdal has a long-acting injectable formulation, Risperdal Consta, that could be used. Remember, Risperdal Consta has to be given every 2 weeks at the providers office, and therapeutic blood levels take time to achieve (on average 36 weeks or 23 injections). Oral overlapping therapy is required to bridge this period of time. Another option in someone who responds to Risperdal would be Invega Sustenna (paliperidone palmitate), which is the first metabolite of Risperdal and has greater activity at the D2 receptor than Risperdal. An advantage of Invega Sustenna over Risperdal Consta is that therapeutic blood levels are attained within the first 47 days, and overlapping oral therapy is usually not necessary. A disadvantage is that during the initiating phase of medication, the first two doses need to be given within 47 days of one another. This is followed by monthly injections. There is another product on the market called Invega Trinza, which is given once every 3 months. This product is for clients who have been stabilized on Invega Sustenna for at least 4 months where the last two doses were the same strength (two months of 156 mg injections). Increasing Zyprexa to 15 mg at bedtime will only worsen the weight gain side effect. While additional benefits from increasing the dose may be possible from an efficacy standpoint, side effects always need to be taken into consideration. First, do no harm. Qsymia is a weight loss medication that is a combination of phentermine and topiramate. It is only indicated to treat obesity. This clients BMI (28.9 kg/M2) does not fit the definition of obesity (BMI >30 Kg/M2- Following from CDC website: Class 1: BMI of 30 to < 35, Class 2: BMI of 35 to < 40, Class 3: BMI of 40 or higher. Class 3 obesity is sometimes categorized as extreme or severe obesity). There are two things wrong with this therapy option. First, there are only a few occasions where add-on therapy to treat a side effect is acceptable, and weight gain is not one of those scenarios. Secondly, phentermine has a lot of cardiovascular toxicities (such as elevated BP, HR, and increased workload on the heart). PLEASE USE 6 REFERENCES FROM SCHOOL RESOURCES.