Copy and paste no references What changes in veins occur to create varicose veins? What is the disease process with superior vena cava syndrome? How does atherosclerosis cause an aneurysm? What are the differences between healthy vessel walls and those that promote clot formation? What are the causes of pulmonary emboli? What can trigger an immune response within the bloodstream that can result in an embolus? Describe thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger disease). Describe Raynaud disease. What is the cause of the hypertrophy of the myocardium associated with hypertension? What pathologic change occurs to the kidneys glomeruli as a result of hypertension? What is the primary mechanism of atherogenesis? What is the effect of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) in atherosclerosis? Which inflammatory cytokines are released when endothelial cells are injured? What alteration occurs in injured endothelial cells which contributes to atherosclerosis? Differentiate between ischemia and infarction. Which of the lipids is manufactured by the liver and primarily contains cholesterol and protein? Which elevated lipid value may be protective of the development of atherosclerosis? What are the risk factors for developing coronary artery disease? Which risk factor increases the risk of developing coronary artery disease up to threefold? How does nicotine increases atherosclerosis? Which lab test is an indirect measure of atherosclerotic plaque? Cardiac cells can withstand ischemic conditions and still return to a viable state for how many minutes? Which form of angina occurs most often during sleep as a result of vasospasms of one or more coronary arteries? What is the expected electrocardiogram pattern for a person when a thrombus in a coronary artery lodges in the vessel and the infarction extends through the myocardium from the endocardium to the epicardium? How does angiotensin II increase the workload of the heart after a myocardial infarction? How long after a myocardial infarction is the scar tissue that forms most vulnerable to injury? What are the enzyme indicators of a myocardial infarction? A patient complains of sudden onset of severe chest pain that radiates to the back and worsens with respiratory movement and when lying down. These clinical manifestations are indicative of which disease? What is the significance of the pulsus paradoxus that occurs as a result of pericardial effusion? Biventricular dilation is the result of which form of cardiomyopathy? Which form of cardiomyopathy is characterized by ventricular dilation and grossly impaired systolic function, leading to dilated heart failure? The hallmark of which form of cardiomyopathy is a disproportionate thickening of the interventricular septum? Which form of cardiomyopathy is usually caused by an infiltrative disease of the myocardium, such as amyloidosis, hemochromatosis, or glycogen storage disease? Which are the clinical manifestations of aortic stenosis? Aortic and mitral regurgitation as well as mitral stenosis are caused by which common disease? Which predominantly female valvular disorder is thought to have an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, as well as being associated with connective tissue disease? Which disorder causes a transitory truncal rash that is nonpruritic and pink with erythematous macules that may fade in the center, making them appear as a ringworm? Infective endocarditis is most often caused by which type of microorganism? What are risk factors for infective endocarditis? What is the most common cardiac disorder associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) resulting from myocarditis and infective endocarditis? What contributes to the physiologic changes that mediate ventricular remodeling? In systolic heart failure, what effect does angiotensin II have on stroke volume? A patient is diagnosed with pulmonary disease and elevated pulmonary vascular resistance. Which heart failure may result from this condition? Chapter 34: Alterations of Cardiovascular Function in Children Study Questions When does most cardiovascular development occur? What is the function of a patent opening between the left and right atria in a fetus? At birth what is the most important change that takes place? The foramen ovale is covered by a flap that creates a check valve allowing blood to flow unidirectionally from the _____ to the _____. When does systemic vascular resistance in infants begin to rise? Congenital heart defects that cause acyanotic congestive heart failure usually involve what kind of shunt? Congenital heart defects that cause hypoxemia, and therefore cyanosis, usually involve what kind of shunt? Which congenital heart defects occur in trisomy 13, trisomy 18, and Down syndrome? An infant has a continuous-machine type of murmur best heard at the left upper sternal border throughout systole and diastole. The infant has a bounding pulse and a thrill on palpation. These clinical findings are consistent with which congenital heart defect? The infant diagnosed with a small patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is likely to present with what clinical manifestations? An infant has a crescendo-decrescendo systolic ejection murmur located between the second and third intercostal spaces along the left sternal border. There is also a wide fixed splitting of the second heart sound. These clinical findings are consistent with which congenital heart defect? An infant has a loud, harsh, holosystolic murmur and systolic thrill that can be detected at the left lower sternal border that radiates to the neck. These clinical findings are consistent with which congenital heart defect? How do children with tetralogy of Fallot compensate to relieve hypoxic spells? What is the location coarctation of the aorta (COA)? Classic manifestations of a systolic ejection murmur, cyanosis of the lower extremities, and decreased or absent femoral pulse are indicative of an older child with which congenital defect? What is the most important clinical manifestation of aortic coarctation in the neonate? Which heart defect produces a systolic ejection murmur at the right upper sternal border that transmits to the neck and left lower sternal border with an occasional ejection click? Which heart defect produces a systolic ejection click at the upper left sternal border with a thrill palpated at the upper left sternal border? Describe the cardiac defect of transposition of the great vessels. Describe the cardiac defect of total anomalous pulmonary venous return. Which heart defect results in a single vessel arising from both ventricles providing blood to both the pulmonary and systemic circulations?